Generates implications Embodies a point of view 3 Critical thinking, as its own unique form of assessment, aims to get students to distinguish between empirical and factual evidence by applying higher order thinking to their own mental processes of receiving, taking apart, and synthesizing information. In addition, students balance all of this with an awareness of their own subjective judgment. Assignments created with the learning outcome of critical thinking in mind strive to create a fair and balanced outcome and parallels similar skills that will be required for future practical application.
Defined by the reader-text relationship: Reading comprehension and recall Evidence of content validity According to Standards for Educational and Psychological Testinga fundamental concern in judging assessments is evidence of validity. Assessments should represent clearly the content domain they purport to measure.
For example, if the intention is to learn more about a student's ability to read content area textbooks, then it is critical that the text passages used for assessment be structured similarly. Based on their study of eight widely used and cited IRIs, Applegate, Quinn, and Applegate concluded that there were great variations in the way IRI text passages were structured, including passages with factual content.
They observed that biographies and content area text, in some cases, matched up better with the classic definition of a story. In a similar manner, Kinney and Harry noted little resemblance between the type of text passages included in many IRIs and the text type typically read by students in middle and high school.
Thus, it makes sense that if the goal of assessment is to gain insights on a student's reading of textbooks that are expository, then the text used for the assessment should also be expository.
Relative to the IRIs examined for this analysis, text passages varied by genre and length as well as by whether the text included illustrations, photos, maps, graphs, and diagrams.
A discussion of the ways in which the various IRIs approach these issues follows. Passage genre With regard to the text types included in the IRIs under review here aligned with the perspective that reading comprehension varies by text typefive of the eight IRIs provide separate sections, or forms, for narrative and expository passages for all levels, making it easy to evaluate reading comprehension and recall for narrative text apart from expository material Applegate et al.
However, caution is advised. Despite the separation of genres, in some of the current IRIs, consistent with Applegate et al. The passage is placed in the Expository Form LE section; however, the first comprehension question asks, "What is this story about?
In fact, the authors note most of the passages were drawn from textbooks. A few of the IRIs appear to take a more holistic approach in their representation of the content domain.
In these IRIs, there is no clear separation of narrative and expository text passages.
Passage length While the passages generally become longer at the upper levels to align with the more demanding texts read by older students, across inventories passage lengths at the same levels vary; some cases, within the same inventory, authors offer passages of different lengths as options at the same levels see Table 1.
For example, finding that beginning readers sometimes struggled with the word, pre-primer passage in earlier editions, Johns now includes in the ninth edition of BRI a second, shorter passage option of 25 words for each form that offers passages at the preprimer level.
In a similar manner, he offers passages of two different lengths at levels Pictures and graphic supplements Noting the benefits and drawbacks of including illustrations and other graphic supplements with the passages, IRI authors vary in their opinions on this matter.
To eliminate the possibility of readers' relying on picture clues rather than their understanding of the text, Silvaroli and Wheelock and Burns and Roe exclude illustrations entirely. BaderCooter et al. Providing examiners with options for comparing beginning readers' performance, Applegate et al.
Moreover, Leslie and Caldwell provide a number of assessment choices at levels 5 through high school, allowing for in-depth and varied evaluations of students' abilities to use different types of graphic supplements typically found in science and social studies textbooks, such as diagrams, maps, photos, and pie graphs.
Evidence of construct validity According to Standards for Educational and Psychological Testinga valid test also captures all the important aspects of the construct i. Across IRIs examined, comprehension question frameworks varied in terms of which aspects of narrative or expository text comprehension they centered on, as well as what dimensions, or levels, of comprehension they measured.
In addition, across the IRIs reviewed, assorted measures were used to identify extraneous factors potentially affecting comprehension scores. A discussion of the various ways in which each IRI handles these issues follows.
All of the IRIs attempt to assess these areas either through their question schemes alone or in combination with a retelling and rubric assessment; however, in some cases, the authors use different terms for the dimensions of comprehension they measure.
Media are powerful forces in the lives of youth. Music, TV, video games, magazines and other media all have a strong influence on how we see the world, an influence that often begins in infancy. To be engaged and critical media consumers, kids need to develop skills and habits of media literacy. Fighting Fake News!: Teaching Critical Thinking and Media Literacy in a Digital Age [Brian C. Housand Ph.D.] on nationwidesecretarial.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Educators have long struggled to teach students to be critical consumers of the information that they encounter. This struggle is exacerbated by the amount of information available thanks to the Internet and mobile devices. Why the Analysis of Thinking is Important. Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed, or downright prejudiced.
For measuring narrative text comprehension and recall, six of the eight IRIs focus their question schemes and retelling rubrics on story elements e. It should be noted that the question schemes of Burns and Roe, Johns, and Woods and Moe are structured differently see Table 1.
Thus, if their question schemes are used to evaluate narrative comprehension independently without a retelling and the associated rubric with story elements criteria, then a student's grasp of narrative text structure will not be evaluated.
In the assessment of expository text comprehension and recall, there is greater variety across IRIs. Four IRIs use question schemes or rubrics based on the levels of importance of information e. Taking a different approach, Woods and Moe and Cooter et al. Johns includes a variety of rubric options specific to narrative and expository text passages but also more holistic rubrics that he suggests can be used with retellings of any text type.
In addition, in the QRI-4, Leslie and Caldwell provide a think-aloud assessment option useful for capturing information about the strategies readers use while they are in the process of constructing meaning based on the text.
To facilitate the use of this assessment option, some of the expository text passages at the sixth, upper middle school, and high school levels are formatted in two different ways that allow for conducting assessments with or without student think-alouds.
The authors also provide a coding system for categorizing the think-aloud types based on whether they indicate an understanding or lack of understanding of the text.This course will provide a foundation in information literacy skills.
Students will learn distinct research methods for various types of questions as well as develop methods to evaluate resources based on authorship, authority, credibility, information type, currency, and purpose. Filed by the ACRL Board on February 2, Adopted by the ACRL Board, January 11, This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License..
PDF Version. Print copies may be purchased from the Association of College and Research Libraries for $ for a package of 10, including standard postage. Media are powerful forces in the lives of youth. Music, TV, video games, magazines and other media all have a strong influence on how we see the world, an influence that often begins in infancy.
To be engaged and critical media consumers, kids need to develop skills and habits of media literacy. BIE’s understanding of critical thinking is influenced greatly by the ideas of Roland Case and The Critical Thinking nationwidesecretarial.com notes that critical thinking is not a different type of thought, a handspring of the mind that vaults above ordinary thinking.
A Critical Analysis of Eight Informal Reading Inventories By: International Reading Association. There are a number of current informal reading inventories — each has its strengths, limitations, and unique characteristics, which should be considered in order to best fit a teacher's needs.
Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. These standards were reviewed by the ACRL Standards Committee and approved by the Board of Directors of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) on January 18, , at the Midwinter Meeting of the American Library Association in San Antonio, Texas.