By Saul McLeodupdated Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five-tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. From the bottom of the hierarchy upwards, the needs are: Needs lower down in the hierarchy must be satisfied before individuals can attend to needs higher up.
Family According to Maslow, humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance among social groups, regardless whether these groups are large or small. For example, some large social groups may include clubs, co-workers, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs, and online communities.
Some examples of small social connections include family members, intimate partners, mentors, colleagues, and confidants. Humans need to love and be loved — both sexually and non-sexually — by others.
This need for belonging may overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure. Esteem[ edit ] Esteem needs are ego needs or status needs develop a concern with getting recognition, status, importance, and respect from others.
Most humans have a need to feel respected; this includes the need to have self-esteem and self-respect. Esteem presents the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others.
People often engage in a profession or hobby to gain recognition. These activities give the person a sense of contribution or value. Low self-esteem or an inferiority complex may result from imbalances during this level in the hierarchy.
People with low self-esteem often need respect from others; they may feel the need to seek fame or glory. However, fame or glory will not help the person to build their self-esteem until they accept who they are internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can hinder the person from obtaining a higher level of self-esteem or self-respect.
Most people have a need for stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs: The "lower" version of esteem is the need for respect from others.
This may include a need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The "higher" version manifests itself as the need for self-respect. For example, the person may have a need for strength, competence, mastery, self-confidenceindependence, and freedom. This "higher" version takes guidelines, the "hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated".
Self-actualization "What a man can be, he must be. Maslow describes this level as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be.
For example, one individual may have the strong desire to become an ideal parent. In another, the desire may be expressed athletically.
For others, it may be expressed in paintings, pictures, or inventions. Self-transcendence In his later years, Abraham Maslow explored a further dimension of needs, while criticizing his own vision on self-actualization.
He equated this with the desire to reach the infinite. Research[ edit ] Recent research appears to validate the existence of universal human needs, although the hierarchy proposed by Maslow is called into question. Methodology[ edit ] Maslow studied what he called the master race of people such as Albert EinsteinJane AddamsEleanor Rooseveltand Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill or neurotic people, writing that "the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy.
The needs and drives of those in individualistic societies tend to be more self-centered than those in collectivist societies, focusing on improvement of the self, with self-actualization being the apex of self-improvement.
In collectivist societies, the needs of acceptance and community will outweigh the needs for freedom and individuality. For example, sex is placed with other physiological needs which must be satisfied before a person considers "higher" levels of motivation.
Some critics feel this placement of sex neglects the emotional, familial, and evolutionary implications of sex within the community, although others point out that this is true of all of the basic needs. In one study,  exploratory factor analysis EFA of a thirteen item scale showed there were two particularly important levels of needs in the US during the peacetime of to Ina retrospective peacetime measure was established and collected during the Persian Gulf War and US citizens were asked to recall the importance of needs from the previous year.
Once again, only two levels of needs were identified; therefore, people have the ability and competence to recall and estimate the importance of needs. For citizens in the Middle East Egypt and Saudi Arabiathree levels of needs regarding importance and satisfaction surfaced during the retrospective peacetime.
These three levels were completely different from those of the US citizens. Changes regarding the importance and satisfaction of needs from the retrospective peacetime to the wartime due to stress varied significantly across cultures the US vs. For the US citizens, there was only one level of needs since all needs were considered equally important.
With regards to satisfaction of needs during the war, in the US there were three levels: During the war, the satisfaction of physiological needs and safety needs were separated into two independent needs while during peacetime, they were combined as one.
For the people of the Middle East, the satisfaction of needs changed from three levels to two during wartime.Maslow's hierarchy of needs is often portrayed in the shape of a pyramid with the largest, most fundamental needs at the bottom and the need for self-actualization and self-transcendence at the top.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Theory, Needs, Pyramid what motivates behavior?”One theory called Maslow’s Hierarchy focuses on behavior of individuals to achieve certain needs. Abraham Maslow was the man behind introducing the concept of hierarchy of needs.
His book “Motivation and personality” published in suggests people are. Criticisms of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow's theory has become wildly popular both in and out of psychology.
The fields of education and business have been particularly influenced by the theory. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. According to Maslow’s theory in order for managers to motivate workers they have to understand why people come to work He says that workers come to work in order to satisfy their needs and wants.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review.
Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five-tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. Needs lower down in the hierarchy must be satisfied before individuals can attend to needs higher up.