Is it okay to have been me? Reflection on life Hope: Mistrust oral-sensory, Infancy, under 2 years [ edit ] Existential Question:
Mistrust Is the world a Psychological stages of development place or is it full of unpredictable events and accidents waiting to happen?
The crisis is one of trust vs. During this stage, the infant is uncertain about the world in which they live. To resolve these feelings of uncertainty, the infant looks towards their primary caregiver for stability and consistency of care.
If the care the infant receives is consistent, predictable and reliable, they will develop a sense of trust which will carry with them to other relationships, and they will be able to feel secure even when threatened. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of hope. By developing a sense of trust, the infant can have hope that as new crises arise, there is a real possibility that other people will be there as a source of support.
Failing to acquire the virtue of hope will lead to the development of fear. For example, if the care has been harsh or inconsistent, unpredictable and unreliable, then the infant will develop a sense of mistrust and will not have confidence in the world around them or in their abilities to influence events.
This infant will carry the basic sense of mistrust with them to other relationships. It may result in anxiety, heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in the world around them. This stage occurs between the ages of 18 months to approximately 3 years.
The child is developing physically and becoming more mobile, and discovering that he or she has many skills and abilities, such as putting on clothes and shoes, playing with toys, etc. For example, during this stage children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc.
Erikson states it is critical that parents allow their children to explore the limits of their abilities within an encouraging environment which is tolerant of failure.
So, the parents need to encourage the child to become more independent while at the same time protecting the child so that constant failure is avoided. A delicate balance is required from the parent. They must try not to do everything for the child, but if the child fails at a particular task they must not criticize the child for failures and accidents particularly when toilet training.
Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of will. If children in this stage are encouraged and supported in their increased independence, they become more confident and secure in their own ability to survive in the world.
If children are criticized, overly controlled, or not given the opportunity to assert themselves, they begin to feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and may then become overly dependent upon others, lack self-esteemand feel a sense of shame or doubt in their abilities.
During the initiative versus guilt stage, children assert themselves more frequently. Central to this stage is play, as it provides children with the opportunity to explore their interpersonal skills through initiating activities.
Children begin to plan activities, make up games, and initiate activities with others. If given this opportunity, children develop a sense of initiative and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions.
Conversely, if this tendency is squelched, either through criticism or control, children develop a sense of guilt. They may feel like a nuisance to others and will, therefore, remain followers, lacking in self-initiative. The child takes initiatives which the parents will often try to stop in order to protect the child.
The child will often overstep the mark in his forcefulness, and the danger is that the parents will tend to punish the child and restrict his initiatives too much. It is at this stage that the child will begin to ask many questions as his thirst for knowledge grows.
Too much guilt can make the child slow to interact with others and may inhibit their creativity. Some guilt is, of course, necessary; otherwise the child would not know how to exercise self-control or have a conscience.
A healthy balance between initiative and guilt is important. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of purpose. Children are at the stage where they will be learning to read and write, to do sums, to do things on their own.
The child now feels the need to win approval by demonstrating specific competencies that are valued by society and begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments. If children are encouraged and reinforced for their initiative, they begin to feel industrious competent and feel confident in their ability to achieve goals.
If this initiative is not encouraged, if it is restricted by parents or teacher, then the child begins to feel inferior, doubting his own abilities and therefore may not reach his or her potential.
If the child cannot develop the specific skill they feel society is demanding e.
Some failure may be necessary so that the child can develop some modesty. Again, a balance between competence and modesty is necessary. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of competence.
Role Confusion During adolescence, the transition from childhood to adulthood is most important.During each stage, the person experiences a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development. For Erikson (), these crises are of a psychosocial nature because they involve psychological needs of the individual (i.e.
psycho) conflicting with the needs of society (i.e. social). Developmental psychology is a scientific approach which aims to explain growth, change and consistency though the lifespan.
Developmental psychology looks at how thinking, feeling, and behavior change throughout a person’s nationwidesecretarial.com: Saul Mcleod. Stages of Psychological Development.
Up to the point in time where we reach physical maturity, around 20 years-of-age, we all follow the same natural path of psychological development—surviving, conforming and differentiating. The seven stages of psychological development and the three stages of the ego-soul evolutionary dynamic are shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: The three evolutionary stages of the ego-soul dynamic. Developmental psychologist Erik H. Erikson () was best known for his theory on social development of human beings, and for coining the phrase identity crisis. The theory describes eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood.
Developmental psychologist Erik H. Erikson () was best known for his theory on social development of human beings, and for coining the phrase identity crisis.. The theory describes eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood.